La prise du pouvoir Eighteenth-Century Music Declaration of the Rights of Man Impressionism
All Quiet on the Western Front The Trial Triumph of the Will Genocide
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La prise du pouvoir
1.  What do you find to be most striking about this short scene?
2.  What does this scene indicate to you the nature of Louis XIV's political power?
3.  What can you determine about the relationship between king and nobility?
4.  What were some of the personal habits of French nobles living in the seventeenth century?
5.  List five characteristics of social/class relations in France under the Ancien Regime during the reign of Louis XIV.
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Eighteenth-Century Music
1.  Selection 1:  Antonio Lucio Vivaldi, 1678-1741, Venice, La Primavera (spring) from The Four Seasons, opus 8 (1725).  Concert for violin, strings and continuo [in three parts]:  Allegro, Largo e pianissimo sempre, Allegro.  Netherlands Chamber Orchestra.  An early use of imagery; harpsichord; relatively short concerto compared to Beethoven.
2.  Selection 2:  Johann Sebastian Bach, 1685-1750, Leipzig, Excerpts from Prelude and Fugue in E Flat Major, "St. Anne," s.552 (17??).  Organ of St. Mary and Joseph's Cathedral.
3.  Selection 3:  Georg Friedreich Handel, 1685-1759, Halle, excerpts from Messiah (1741), including "Hallelujah."  Messiah was first performed in Dublin, April 1742.  New York Philharmonic Orchestra, Leonard Bernstein conducting.  Adele Addison, soprano, et al, and the Westminster Choir.
4.  Selection 4:  Franz Joseph Haydn, 1732-1809, Rohrau, String Quartet #77 in C Major, "Emperor Quartet," opus 76, no. 3:  Allegro; Pocco adagio, cantabile (that may be sung); Minuet, allegro; Finale, presto (quick).  This is the "minuet."  Haydn Quartet of Lower Austria.
Selection 5:  Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, 1756-1791, Salzburg, Concerto for Piano in D Minor, no. 20, kv 466:  Allegro, Romance, Rondo (Allegro assai) (round).  This is the "romance."  Géza Anda and the Vienna Symphony Orchestra.  The perfected concerto form.
Selection 6:  Ludwig van Beethoven, 1770-1827, Bonn, Symphony no. 5 in C Minor, opus 67:  Allegro con brio (with gusto), Andante con moto, Allegro, Allegro.  This is the first movement.  Herbert von Karajan and the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra.
Selection 7:  Beethoven, Symphony no. 9 in D Minor, "Choral," written 1823.  Otto Klemperer and the (London) Philharmonic Orchestra.  This is the last movement based on Friedreich Schiller's "Ode to Joy.
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Declaration of the Rights of Man
1.  How did John Locke and the American experience (Declaration of Independence and Constitution) influence the terms of this document?
2.  What were the central themes of this document?
3.  Why was this document written in 1789?
4.  Were there any significant differences between the rights of women and those of men?
5.  According to the Declaration, from where does the power of government originate, or, in other words, where does sovereignty lie?
6.  Were there any restrictions noted in the Declaration on the rights of man?
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Precursors of the Impressionists
  • Eugène Delacroix, 1798-1863
  • Camille Corot, 1796-1875
  • Gustave Courbet, 1819-1877
  • Edgar Degas, 1834-1917
  • Edouard Manet, 1832-1883, son of a Paris magistrate.  Around him a group of young artists gathered at the Café Guerbois, including Edgar Degas, Camille Pissarro and occasionally Paul Cézanne.  After 1869, the group also included:  Claude Monet, Pierre-August Renoir, Alfred Sisley and Frédéric Bazille.
The Impressionists

Impressionists investigated the ever-changing nature of light, time and space, and they tried to create a sensation of fleeting time and light for a spontaneous, unrehearsed, immediate effect.  One common technique that they employed was to use broken brush-strokes to imply haste, the attempt to capture an image before it was gone.  They also painted casual poses that lacked detail and that gave a general "impression," or sense, of a scene.  Finally, they were committed to working outdoors, en plein air, in bright light and with bright colors and not in a confined studio.

In 1863, the official "salon" of the French Academy turned down a number of entries for exhibition.  The painters appealed to Napoleon III, who allowed them to exhibit in another gallery near the official salon.  This was called the Salon des Refusés (Salon of the Rejected).  One of the works exhibited there was Manet's Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe (Luncheon on the Grass), and it caused a huge commotion, which for us today is hard to understand.

Then in 1874, Claude Monet exhibited a painting called Impression--Sunrise.  That painting gave the movement its name.  (A less credible theory of the origins of the word states that a critics said they painted impressions of an object and not the object itself.)  Actually, the first "impressionist" painting was probably La Grenouillère (The Frog Pond), done by Monet and Pierre-August Renoir in 1869.

Monet is also responsible for the incredible series of four gigantic paintings of Les Nymphéas (Water Lilies) that now hang in Le Musée de l'Orangerie in Paris.  They were painted between 1903 and his death in 1926 and were his gift to the French people for their sacrifices in World War I.  They were first displayed after his death.

Some impressionists
  • Camille Pissarro, 1831-1903
  • James Whistler, 1834-1903
  • Alfred Sisley, 1839-1899
  • Claude Monet, 1840-1926
  • August Renoir, 1841-1919
  • Berthe Morisot, 1841-1895
  • Frédéric Bazille, 1841-1870
  • Mary Cassatt, 1844-1926
  • Henri de Toulouse-Latrec, 1864-1901
  • Georges Seurat, 1859-1891
Post-Impressionists  These painters argued that a painting must represent an artist's particular intellect and feelings.  They wanted to make the creative process even more private ("expressive")
  • Paul Cézanne, 1839-1906
  • Paul Gauguin, 1848-1903
  • Vincent van Gogh, 1853-1890
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All Quiet on the Western Front
1.  How does the movie differ from the book and why?
2.  What kind of film-making techniques does the director use to convey best the impact of war on the soldiers?
3.  Is their anything unusual about this film, which was made in 1930?
4.  What could the director have done differently in making this picture?
5.  What impact do you think this movie had on audiences of the 1930s?
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The Trial
1.  How did this story reflect the experience of Franz Kafka (1883-1924)?
2.  Why is this film/work so bizarre?
3.  Did Kafka correctly discern the nature of life in the twentieth century?
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Triumph of the Will
1.  List at least 10 (ten) elements/techniques/images (for example the use of fire) manipulated by the Nazis in this film to generate mass enthusiasm for the Nazi movement.
2.  How do you think German audiences reacted to seeing this film in small theaters in the 1930s in the midst of the Great Depression?
3.  Was this a successful propaganda film, or was it merely a great documentary?
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1.  What prevented the allies from intervening against the death camp atrocities during the war?
2.  Why did the Genocide take place?
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