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1. Total War: German Society 1914-1918, translated by Barbara Weinberger (Leamington Spa, 1984). Less pessimistic on the issue of national solidarity and more impressionistic Jean-Jacques Becker, The Great War and the French People, tr. by Arnold Pomerans (Leamington Spa, 1985). 

2. Among countless treatments, let me single out the one that I recommend to my students: James Joll, The Origins of the First World War (London,1984).

3. Ivo Lederer, Yugoslavia at the Paris Peace Conference (New Haven, 1963); Victor Mamatey, The U.S. and East Central Europe, 1914-1919 (Princeton, 1957); René Albrecht-Carrié, Italy at the Paris Peace Conference (New York, 1938), repr. 1966) and two recent English studies: Simon M. Jones, Domestic Factors in Italian Intervention in the First World War (New York, 1986), and William A. Renzi, In the Shadow of the Sword: Italy's Neutrality and Entrance into the Great War, 1914-1915 (New York, 1987).

4. A reading list on propaganda should include: Peter Buitenhuis, The Great War of Words (Vancouver, 1987); Michael Sanders, British Propaganda during the First World War (London, 1982); and Hans Weigel, Jeder Schuss ein Russ, jeder Stoss ein Fanzos: literarische und graphische Kriegspropaganda in Deutschland und Österreich, 1914-1918 (Vienna, 1983). 

5. John W. Wheeler-Bennett, The Forgotten Peace, Brest-Litovsk, March 1918 (New York, 1939), to which might be added Wolfdieter Bihl, Österreich-Ungarn und die Friedensschlüsse von Brest-Litovsk (Vienna, 1970), and Winfried Baumgart, Deutsche Ostpolitik 1918 (Munich and Vienna, 1966). The German documents on Brest-Litovsk were not published until 1970 in Werner Hahlweg (ed.), Der Friede von Brest-Litovsk (Quellen zur Geschichte des Parlamentarismus und der politischen Parteien, Series 1, vol. 8) (Düsseldorf, 1971).

6. International Relations in Europe, 1918-1933 (New York, 1976), p. 4.

7. The most valuable published part of the record remains Paul Mantoux (ed.), Les deliberations du Conseil des Quatre (24 mars-28 juin 1919), 2 vols. (Paris, 1955), part of which has been translated by John Boardman Whitten, Paris Peace Conference, 1919: Proceedings of the Council of Four, March 24-April 18, 1919 (Publication de l'Institut universitaire des hautes études internationales, No.43) (Geneva, 1964).

8. Even Robert 0. Paxton's excellent text on Europe in the Twentieth Century (New York, 1975), concludes on p. 173 that "The terms finally produced by the Peace Conference are known collectively as the Versailles Treaties."

9. The most extensive and handy collection of such views can be round in Heinrich Schnee (cd.), Zehn Jahre Versailles, 2 vols., (Berlin, 1929-30). 

10. There was agitation in 1919 for a revision of the Swiss-German border near Schaffhausen, but the Swiss government finally declined to support local agitation promoting such a step. See e.g. Max Bolli, "Die Enklave Büsingen," Geographica Helvetica, 9 (1954), 253; Wandschuh (German Consul in Schaffhausen) to German Legation in Berne, January 28, 1919, in German Foreign Office Archives (Microfilm) T-149, Baden, 36/16, Reel 50, Frames 645-57. 

11. The standard work, not only in English, is Dan P. Silverman, Reluctant Union: Alsace-Lorraine and Imperial German, 1871-1919 (University Park, PA., 1972), but note also the recent Hermann Hiery, Reichstagswahlen im Reichsland (Dusseldorf, 1986), which insists that Alsace-Lorrainers had become more thoroughly reconciled to citizenship in the empire than has generally been estimated. On French-speaking Lorraine see the exhaustive Francois Roth, La Lorraine annexée (Nancy, 1976). 

12. Francois G. Dreyfus, La vie politique en Alsace, 1919-1936 (Paris, 1969); Pierre Maugué, Le particularisme Alsacien, 1918-1967 (Paris, 1970), and Lothar Kettenacker, Nationalsozialistische Volkstumspolitik im Elsass (Stuttgart, 1973). 

13. Lawrence D. Steefel remains the authority on The Schleswig-Holstein Question (Harvard Historical Studies, vol. 32) (Cambridge, Mass., 1932). On the plebiscite in North Schleswig, we now have Terry Hunt Tooley's "Fighting without Arms: The Defense of German Interests in Schleswig, East and West Prussia and Upper Silesia." Unpub. Ph.D. diss. University of Virginia, 1986, 314-408. On the origins of the Danish border problem, see also Kurt Jurgensen, "Die Eingliederung der Herzogtümer Schleswig-Holstein und Lauenburg ins preussische Königreich," in Peter Baumgart (ed.), Expansion und Integration (Neue Forschungen zur brandenburgischen und preussischen Geschichte, vol. 5) (Cologne, 1984), 340. 

14. Titus Komarnicki, Rebirth of the Polish Republic, a Study in the Diplomatic History of Europe, 1914-1920 (London, 1957); Kay Lundgreen-Nielsen, The Polish Problem at the Paris Peace Conference (Odense, University Studies in History and Social Sciences, vol. 59) (Odense, 1979), especially pp. 32-91, 385-400 and 409. Lundgreen used French archives which were still closed at the rime Komarnicki published his study.

15. Wilhelm Sollmann, "Die Beschränkung der Machtbefugnis," Zehn Jahre Versailles, II, 3.

16. See, for instance, the ethnic composition of the Memel district, ceded to Lithuania, and not covered in this survey, as portrayed in Albrecht Plied, Das Memelland 1920-1939 (Würzburg, 1962), pp. 244-45.

17. Richard Blanke, "Upper Silesia 1921--The Case for Subjective Nationality," Canadian Review for Studies in Nationalism, 2 (1975), 160-241. 

18. John Brown Mason, The Danzig Dilemma (London, 1946) remains the standard English account of the settlement, but see also Christopher M. Kimmich, The Free City: Danzig and German Foreign Policy, 1919-1934 (New Haven, 1968), on German exploitation of the dilemma.

19. Heinrich Schnee has also had a hand in preparing Das Buch der deutschen Kolonien (Leipzig, 1937). Wolfe W. Schmokel, Dream of Empire: German Colonialism, 1919-1945 (New Haven, 1964), pp. 1-2, 14-15 first concluded that recovery of the colonies stood low on the revisionist agenda. Andrew J. Crozier, Appeasement and Germany's Last Bid for Colonies (New York, 1988), pp. 14-20 professes to disagree, but his conclusions on this point do not differ much from Schmokel's. The same may be said about Klaus Hildebrand, Vom Reich zum Weltreich. Hitler, NSDAP und koloniale Frage 1919-1945 (Munich, 1969). 

20. Revived in our time on a less passionate Ievel by Sally Marks, "Reparations Reconsidered: A Reminder," Central European History, 2 (1969), 356-65.

21. Germany's Aims in the First World War tr. by James Joll (London, 1967).

22. Hermann Kantorowica, Gutachten zur Kriegsschuldfrage 1914 ed. and intr. by Immanuel Geiss (Frankfurt, 1967). 

23. See the microfilm copy of the Eisendecher papers in the National Archives, Reel 8, Frames 513-518.

24. Quoted by A. Lentin, Lloyd George, Woodrow Wilson and the Guilt of Germany (Baton Rouge, 1984), p. 84. Italics mine.

25. Quoted by Charles L. Mee, Jr ., The End of Order, Versailles 1919 (New York, 1980), p. 236.

26. See Klaus Epstein, Matthias Erzberger and the Dilemma of German Democracy (Princeton, 1959), pp. 388-89.

27. Eliot B. Wheaton, The Nazi Revolution (1933-1935) (New York, 1969). pp. 221-297.

28. Gordon Wright, France in Modern Times (Chicago, 1960), pp. 404-405.


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