A General Crisis?: Europe and the World in the Long, Cold Seventeenth-Century
Russian Winter

The General Crisis (wiki): "The General Crisis is the term used by some historians to describe the period of widespread conflict and instability that occurred from the early 17th century to the early 18th century in Europe and in more recent historiography in the world at large. The concept is much debated by historians and there is no consensus."


Philip IV (1605-1665)
Louis XIII (1601-1643)
Louis XIV (1638-1715)
Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658)
James I (1566-1625)
Charles I of England (1600-1649)
Mikhail Fedorovich (1596-1645)
Aleksei Mikhailovich (1629-1676)
Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616)
Tokugawa Iemitsu (1604-1651)
Richelieu (1585-1642)
Mazarin (1602-1661)
Count Olivares (1587-1645)
Patriarch Nikon (1605-1681)
Stenka Razin (1670-71)
Akbar (1542-1605)
Shah Jahan (1592-1666)
Jahangir (1569-1627)
Please add others as necessary.


Thirty Years war (1618-1648)
Bohemian revolt (1618)
Ottoman-Polish war (1621)
Ottoman regicides 1600s
Cossack revolt (1625)
French Huguenot revolt (1625-290)
Gujarat famine (1631)
Nu-Pieds revolt (Normandy, 1639)
Catalan revolt (1659)
Portuguese independence and war with Spain (1639-1668)
Irish rebellion (1653)
Qing invasion of China (1644)
Naples and Sicily revolt (1648)
Mughal civil war (1658-62)
Cape Colony war (1659-60)
Ottoman-Habsburg war (1663)
Qing capture of Taiwan (1683)
Ottoman-Habsburg war (1683-99)
India drought (1688)
Revolt of the Three Feudatories in China (1673-81)
Bacon's rebellion (Virginia, 1676)
King Philip's war (New England, 1676)
Ottoman-Russian war (1671)
Glorious revolution (1688)
Streltsy revolt (Russia, 1698)
La Fronde (France, 1648-53)
English civil war (1649)
1648-49 Russian revolts
Char Bouba War (Mauritania, 1644–74)
Mughal civil war (1662)
Russo-Polish war (1632-34)
Russo-Polish war (1654-57)
1637-51 Scottish revolution (1637-51)
Pequot war (New England, 1637)
King Philip's war (New England, 1675-78)
Qing dynasty (1636)
Glorious Revolution (England, 1688)
Rump Parliament (England, 1648)
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569-)
War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14)
Please add others as necessary.


The Crisis of the Seventeenth Century

Crisis of the Seventeenth Century

Jonathan Dewald, Chronology and Meaning: Reflections on the General Crisis of the Seventeenth Century

Joshua Cole on the crisis of the 17th century (video)

Little Ice Age (wiki)

Jan Oosthoek, Methods and Problems in Historical Climatology

Drew Shindell, Glaciers, Old Masters, and Galileo: The Puzzle of the Chilly 17th Century (2002)

Several articles in JSTOR, such as H. R. Trevor-Roper, "The General Crisis of the 17th Century," Past & Present (November 1959): 31-64 , or in Project Muse, such as Jan de Vries, "The Economic Crisis of the Seventeenth Century after Fifty Years," Journal of Interdisciplinary History (Autumn, 2009): 151–194

Williams S. Atwell, "A Seventeenth-Century 'General Crisis' in East Asia?" Modern Asian Studies, 24 (October 1990): 661-82

Professor David Stuedy, Review of Europe in Crisis, 1598-1648 by Geoffrey Parker

Hillary Rosner, In the 17th century, a world wrecked by climate Geoffrey Parker's unsettling new look at an earlier moment of upheaval

Sara Reardon, Climate Shifts Sparked 17th-Century Conflicts

There are several books are available on this topic.